Aptitude Test Result

Raw Score CA CL MA NA PM RA SA VA Raw Score
Raw Score 14 58 0 15 10 1 11 Raw Score
Sten Score CA CL MA NA PM RA SA VA Sten Score
10 Yes Yes - Yes - Yes - Yes 10
9 - - - - - - - - 9
8 - - - - - - - - 8
7 - - - - - - - - 7
6 - - - - - - - - 6
5 - - - - - - - - 5
4 - - - - - - - - 4
3 - - - - - - - - 3
2 - - - - - - - - 2
1 - - Yes - - - Yes - 1
Sten Score Closure Clerical Mechanical Numerical Psychomotor Reasoning Spatial Vertical Sten Score
Sten 1 -3 = Low Ability, Sten 4-7 = Average Ablility, Sten 8-10 = High Ability

Your Score Card
Graph Format


Abilities Measured in DBDA-R


Verbal Ability refers to the comprehension of words and ideas or a persons ability to understand written language. It has been studied by the psychologists for many years and is one of the most important of human abilities. Traditional tests of general intelligence usually tap VA to a large extent. In the DBDA, VA is assessed by two different kinds of subtests: Vocabulary (VA Part:I) and Understanding proverbs (VA Part:11). This ability can be expected to figure prominently in success in academic and school-related performances. It is a predictor of occupations involving much reading and writing of reports , and so on. This factor is assessed by taking the sum of a person's scores on VA-I and V-11. In this and other tests of the DBDA, no correction for guessing is applied.

VA Part:I involves word meaning exercise to assess the subject's knowledge of English words and his ability to abstract and, generaIize relationships among words. VA Part-II involves the ability to recognize the proverbs and understand their latent meaning, an ability assumed to be essentially the same as that of comprehension of language, and usage of words in day to day life

The VA subtest is included in this battery because it is anticipated to be useful in predicting important criteria such as academic success, speedy and accurate recall of exact data received from the surroundings, and rapid comprehension of verbal communication where verbal relationships and concepts are important. The VA score deserves a considerable weight where it is to be judged that whether the subject is from a good formal school education or not. Vocationally, the VA score also indicates something about the occupational level upto which the subject should appropriately aspire, since there is a positive relationship in many occupations between the level of responsibility of a job and the complexity of verbally phrased ideas to be comprehended.


Numerical ability refers to facility in manipulating numbers quickly accurately, in tasks involving add1t1on , subtraction, multiplication, division , squaring, dealing with fractions etc. NA is distinct from both reasoning and mathematical knowledge, and is with the more basic trait of facility and fluency in fundamental number operations. This ability is generally found high in individuals who are successful in mathematical, scientific, and technical subjects . It is a predictor of occupations involving computational tasks, such as various cleRical, accounting, engineering, technological, data processing jobs, etc.

The problems to be solved in NA test are not difficult but they have to done in very limited time. Thus, increasing the difficulty level for rapid calculations. In combination with the VA score, both the tests are a good measure of general learning ability.


Spatial Ability is concerned with perceiving spatial patterns accurately, and following the orientation of figures when their position in a plane or space is altered. This ability has been extensively studied over the years and has been seen as an indicator of non-verbal, or to some extent, culture-fair intelligence, since its dependence on acculturation and learning is minimal. In DBDA, SA is assessed by items in which the subject must be able to determine quickly whether two-dimensional figures have been merely turned around (rotated) or, they are turned over and rotated (reversed). This ability is found to be high in individuals who are successful in geometrical drawing, drafting, vocational training, and in art and design. It is a predictor of occupations involving figural materials, such as those dealing with shopwork, architecture, building construction, engineering , commercial art, dress-designing, die-making, and decoration, etc.

The latent feature which operates in SA is that the items require mental manipulation of objects in three-dimensional (3-D) space. Thus, SA is a good measure of ability to deal with concrete materials through visualization. There are many tasks in which one is required to imagine how an object would look if made from a given pattern, or how a specified object would appear if rotated in a given way.


Closure Ability is primarily a perceptual ability measured by the DBDA. t refers to the ability to see quickly a whole stimulus when parts of it are missing, or to "complete the Gestalt" The principle of closure has been adopted from Gestalt Psychology, which says that the brain tends to fill in gaps in order to perceive complete meaningful forms. CA is a speed test assessed by items in which the examinee must look at a "mutilated word," i.e. , a word with parts of the letters missing, decide what the word is, and then find which one of the five jumbled options spells that word when unjumbled. Both completing the gestalt of the "mutilated word " and unjumbling of the letters in the options tap this ability. CA can be expected to be relevant to success in courses and occupations involving speedy visual perception, such as those concerned with office and shopwork, architecture, computer programming and data processing, art and designing, etc.


Clerical Ability is perceptual activity primarily concerned with making rapid evaluations of features of visual stimuli.

In CL, the perceptual speed and accuracy is measured by items in which the examinee must rapidly assess the sameness or difference of paired groups of letters or numbers. The items thus provides a series of situations which simulates the elements involved in many clerical jobs. Little or no "higher level" of intellectual difficulty is involved in this test. But since intelligence or mental ability components are adequately measured by other tests of this battery, it was decided to include this ability also due to high vocational value of this ability.

CL is important to success in many tasks ivolving record-keeping, filing , taking inventories, dispatching, coding, and other similar jobs. It is relatively less importance for most educational purposes, although students who score very low may find it difficult to meet classroom standards of neatness, speed and precision. A low score on this test for a generally superior subject is likely to indicate his/her emphasis on correctness rather than speed.


Reasoning Ability refers to the ability to apply the process of induction or to reason from some specific information to a general principle Here, RA is measured by items requiring the subject to inspect sets of four letters and discover how four of the five sets presented embody a general principle, while the fifth does not. Thus , little or no reliance is placed on learned material, words, or numbers, so that RA scores will be a good indicator of non-verbal, non-culturally biased intelligence. This is one of the most important primary mental abilities in many tests of general intelligence. The series presented in each problem item requires the perception of an operating principle in the sets of letters. In each instance, the subject must discover the principle(s) governing the set of letters and give evidence of his understanding by identifying the set which does no

RA is important to success in many areas particularly those that stress logic, such as courses and occupations in mathematics or related pursuits, computer programming, engineering, sciences and scientific technology.


Mechanical Abiility refers to an understanding of basic mechanical principles, simple machines, tools , electrical, and automotive facts. This factor can also be referred to as "Mechanical Information" or "Mechanical Experience," as MA score is dependent to a great extent on acquired knowledge and skills in such areas. The items in MA test tap information in all these areas. It has been found useful in the prediction of success in training and occupational performance in technical vocational areas.

The ability measured by MA test may be regarded as one aspect of intelligence, if intelligence is broadly defined. The person who stands high in this ability finds it easy to learn the principles of operation and repair of complex devices . The score is affected by previous experience of the subject but not to a degree that introduces serious difficulties in interpretation. The MA test is useful in those curricula and occupations where an appreciation of the principles of common physical forces is required . If a student intending to go for higher studies in a physical science field (or in a technical/manual training course) but does not get a good score on MA, he/she is like!y to perform poorly in his/her job and find the work difficult.

Thus, MA score is relevant for courses and occupations concerned with machinery and shop, electrical/electronic tasks factory, automotive, carpentry, and engineering technologies

It is important to realize that MA scores are of less educational and vocational significance for girls than for boys. The mean scores for girls are lower and value of the test for educational or vocational guidance is less clearly established for females.


Psycho-Motor Ability here refers to precise movements requiring eye-hand coordination under highly speeded conditions PM ability can be considered one of fine-muscle dexterity, primarily manual. The test requires the subject to draw finely controlled pencil lines, as quickly as he can, in specially constructed figures. The PM test can also be associated with the MA test, as its importance to success in mechanical-technological endeavors is well-established.

In addition, PM can be expected to be relevant for success in assembly line work, drafting, and clerical jobs.

Generally, a sten score of 4 , 5, 6, or 7 indicates an average level of ability of an individual. Whereas, sten scores of 1, 2, or 3 are typically found in individuals having very poor ability in that area. However, a score of 8, indicates a high ability and skill in that area. Finally, stens of 9 and 1O are extremely high and can be treated as good predictors of success involving that particular ability. The description of these sten scores for each ability are given in a tabular form as following


Sten Score Description
1-3 Below average knowledge and understand ing of words and their use in day to day applications. The subject is unable to understand English vocabulary of average difficulty level. Therefore, has a below average ability to apply English usage in practical life.
4-7 Average verbal ability to understand and apply English language in an unstructured form. Has an average ability to comprehend English vocabulary and verbal skills for usage in practical applications.
8-10 High verbal ability in comprehension and use of English words and language. The subject has an extremely good vocabulary and intelligibility in its profound grasping of the relationships among words


Sten Score Description
1-3 Below average facility in handling numbers and their use in day to day applications. The subject has a below average ability to make rapid calculations in simple arithmetic problems.
4-7 Average numerical ability showing fluency in fundamental numerical operations. The subject has an average ability to understand and apply rapid numerical solutions to computational tasks.
8-10 High ability to wield numerical operations rapidly and accurately. Has a high skill to manipulate numbers quickly and accurately, and perform well in accounting, technical, and data processing kind of tasks


Sten Score Description
1-3 Below average ability to perceive things in an organized and meaningful manner.
4-7 Average ability to form a perceptual cluster from a number of vague or jumbled data present in the surroundings. Can perceive meaningful blocks and organize them.
8-10 Extremely high ability to understand and grasp relationships among incomplete stimuli. The subject has a highly motivated or goal directed observation along with rapid perceptual accuracy to comprehend the surroundings. Can do well in such situations.


Sten Score Description
1-3 Poor ability for perceptual activities involving rapid evaluations of features of visual stimuli.
4-7 Average ability to perform with speed and accuracy in a monotonous task. Is likely to make some errors in tasks involving repeated activity for long periods.
8-10 Extremely high ability to work with rapid speed and accuracy in tasks which do not require "higher level" of intellectual activity. Can be successful in tasks involving record-keeping, filing, dispatching, coding, and other similar jobs.


Sten Score Description
1-3 Below average ability to deduce logical principle underlying any relationship among concepts.
4-7 Average ability to apply logical reasoning from some specific information to a general principle.
8-10 Extremely high ability to understand and grasp relationships among unknown stimuli. The subject has an excellent ability to apply the process of induction or logical reasoning in order to comprehend relationships. Can do well in such activities which involve logical thinking such as computer programming, engineering, scientific technology, or mathematics related pursuits.


Sten Score Description
1-3 Poor understanding of basic mechanical principles underlying simple machines, tools, electrical, and automotive operations.
4-7 Average ability to succeed in performance of technical vocational areas. Is somewhat aware of the information on basic mechanical principles.
8-10 Extremely high mechanical ability to understand technical aspects of machines, tools, and automotive facts, etc. Can be successful in tasks concerned with machinery, electrical/electronic jobs, carpentry, or engineering technologies.


Sten Score Description
1-3 Below average eye-hand coordination under speeded conditions.
4-7 Average ability to maintain a fine-muscle dexterity in manual tasks.
8-10 Extremely high psycho-motor ability to perform accurately under speeded conditions. Has an excellent fine muscle dexterity for manual tasks. Can be successful in assembly line work, drafting, and clerical jobs.

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